Friday, 24 November 2017

Maternal Smoking and Perinatal Outcomes



Nicotine is one of the major components in tobacco smoke, and it can cross the placenta. It enters the fetal circulation and accumulates in the fetal compartments from as early as seven weeks of gestation, even with passive smoking. Elevated fetal carbon monoxide levels may result in hypoxia due to reduced availability of hemoglobin for oxygen transport. Exposure to hazardous substances in cigarette smoke could lead to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. In particular, maternal nicotine exposure is associated with many adverse fetal, placental, and postnatal health outcomes, including both shortterm and long-term complications. Despite increased awareness of the harmful effects of smoking during pregnancy, approximately 20% of women continue to smoke throughout pregnancy in the world. Reducing smoking in pregnancy is a global public-health priority. We recommend clinical and public-health strategies aimed at the primary and secondary prevention of tobacco exposure for fetuses and children.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the prevalence of smoking is approximately 22% of women in developed countries and 9% of women in underdeveloped countries. The 2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) polled women from 24 states in the US. The self-reported data showed that about 23% of reproductive-aged women smoked during the three months before pregnancy, and about 10% of women smoked during the last three months of pregnancy. About 55% of women who smoked before pregnancy reported they had quit smoking by the last three months of pregnancy. The highest prevalence of those smoking during the last three months of pregnancy (15-16%) was in the age groups of 24 years and younger (Figure 1). A strong correlation has been seen between maternal smoking during pregnancy and young age, unmarried status, and being from a low socioeconomic status.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) PRAMS showed the trends of smoking three months before pregnancy, during, and after pregnancy data from 40 states in the US from 2000 to 2010. During this decade, the prevalence of smoking in the three months before pregnancy remained unchanged at about one in four women. However, the prevalence of smoking declined in the last three months of pregnancy from 13.2% to 11.6% and after delivery from 17.8% to 16.6%. The data showed that 40% of women who quit smoking during pregnancy relapsed within six months after delivery.

Other parts of the world had a greater decrease in smoking for women. Dias-Dame et al., conducted population-based survey in Brazil, data of 7,572 women showed that the prevalence of smoking before pregnancy decreased from 28% in 2007 to 22% in 2013, and the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased from 22% in 2007 to 18% in 2013. In Australia, the prevalence of smoking in pregnancy in New South Wales declined from 22.1% in 1994 to 13.5% in 2007. The largest decrease in smoking in pregnancy rates was among the highest socioeconomic group, and smaller declines were observed among teenage and remote rural mothers.


Thursday, 23 November 2017

THANKSGIVING DAY





THANKSGIVING DAY


Thanksgiving Day is a day of giving thanks for blessing them with the harvest and of the progressing year. It is a day of celebration in many countries like Canada, United States, Liberia, Japan and some of the Caribbean islands. It’s a time to be appreciative and grateful for all we've and a time to mirror on the year and acknowledge people who have provided the love, care, and a focus to create our lives higher. In most of the countries Thanksgiving Day is celebrated on the Fourth Thursday of November every year.

History

Prayers of thanksgiving ceremonies are common amongst all the religions during the time of harvests. The history of Thanksgiving stretches the entire manner back to a time long before America became a nation. During 1620, pilgrims came to settle down in the North America. At times brutal conditions were faced by them which lead to death of many people due to droughts. As the days moved on, they began to harvest the corn successfully and in order to show their gratitude and thankfulness to God they decided to celebrate the feast of Thanksgiving Day in the year 1621. In the year 1789, President George Washington declared 26th November as national thanks giving day. During the rule of Abraham Lincoln, he proclaimed “last Thursday of November” as thanks giving day which everyone follows till today.









Raising the Self Esteem with the Oral Rehabilitation of a Child with Incontinentia Pigmenti Syndrome


                                              http://austinpublishinggroup.com/dentistry/



Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked dominant syndrome that mainly affects the skin, eyes, hair, central nervous system and teeth. Although dermatologic manifestations are among the most important aspects for the diagnosis of the syndrome, oral involvement characterized by hypodontia, conoid teeth and delayed eruption are also important for the diagnosis and patient aesthetic rehabilitation. These abnormalities may cause feeding problems influencing the patient quality of life. This study reported a case of a 10-year-old girl with cutaneous manifestations and hypodontia. The child´s main complaint was related to her smile. The treatment plan was the tooth restoration (conoid) and installation of the space maintainers. This case enhances the importance of integrated dental treatment, which combines pediatric dentistry, orthodontics and conventional prosthesis. In addition, hypodontia is frequently found in incontinentia pigmenti, and dentists should be aware of this condition in order to help with the diagnosis.
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant genodermatosis which mainly affects women and is usually lethal for males when in the mother’s utero. Synonyms of IP type 2 are: Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome, Bloch-Siemens syndrome, familial incontinentia pigmenti (pigment incontinence). The incidence of the disorder is 1 case per 40,000 populations. The name of the disease reflects morphological changes of the skin seen under a microscope system. The disease is systemic and involves tissues of ectodermic and mesodermic origin including coetaneous tissue, teeth, eyes and the central nervous system (CNS), amongst other organs. In 80% of the cases other defects are seen in the form of dental, skeletal, nail anomalies, microcephaly, seizures, psychomotor retardation, strabismus, opitc nerve atrophy, retinal detachment, cataracts, etc.
Cutaneous manifestations of IP are divided into the following four stages, although not all stages may be present in some cases: stage 1-erythema, vesicles and blisters appearing in a typically linear pattern; stage 2-papulae, verrucous lesions and hyperkeratosis; stage 3-hyperpigmentation; stage 4-hypopigmentation and cutaneous atrophy. In all of these stages, the cutaneous lesions tend to follow the lines of Blaschko.The blistering stage of the lesion needs to be differentiated from Herpes simplex and Bullous Impetigo. The lesions are linear and in clusters in classical Incontenentia Pigmenti. Warty phase needs to be differentiated from linear epidermal birthmarks or warts. Hyperpigmentary stage needs to be differentiated from moles and other causes of hyperpigmentation. Hyperpigmentation of Incontenentia Pigmenti is classically in whorls. affect both the primary and permanent dentitions. The most frequent alteration is hypodontia (up to 43% of patients), followed by pegged or conically crowned teeth (30% of patients). Other dental features were also reported as delayed eruption, partial anodontia, hypomineralization and gothic palate. All these manifestations are important because they persist throughout the patient’s life, thus requiring an adequate dental treatment plan when the diagnosis of the disease to oral rehabilitation is made by a multidisciplinary team. The majority of dental anomalies in IP patients could be successfully corrected. Some of these anomalies may greatly influence the quality of life causing psychological and feeding problems. This article reports a case of a 10-year-old girl with cutaneous manifestations and hypodontia. The diagnosis of incontinentia pigmenti in this patient was based on the description of vesiculobullous lesion at birth followed by hyperpigmented lesion overlapping the previous area of the vesicobullous lesion.


Wednesday, 22 November 2017

Stabilization versus Ablation of Tumor Vasculature: Implications in Radio and Chemo-Sensitization

                   http://austinpublishinggroup.com/carcinogenesis/currentissue.php


It is well established that tumors are unable to grow beyond certain size (1-2 mm) unless they acquire their own blood supply via. angiogenesis. In addition, angiogenesis helps tumors to invade adjacent tissues and metastasize to distant sites. Therefore, it has been postulated that interfering with the blood supply using antiangiogenic therapies will destroy the tumor. However, there is an emerging alternative concept that depriving the tumor of its blood supply interferes with the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor and creates unfavorable hypoxic environment that compromises the action of radiotherapy. This concept was supported by the modest responses to anti-angiogenic therapies in clinical trials and the lack of any impact on patient’s survival when antiangiogenic drugs are administered as single agents. Although, Hurwitz, et al have shown that combining the antiangiogenic drug, Bevacizumab with chemotherapy significantly improved survival among metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Still, other studies demonstrated reductions in tumor concentrations of chemotherapy or effectiveness of radiotherapy when antiangiogenic drugs were co-administered. Even when antiangiogenic drugs yielded significant effects on the growth of some tumors such as renal cell carcinoma, cervical cancer and ovarian cancer, they failed to demonstrate significant improvements in patients’ survival. Furthermore, complete resistance to antiangiogenic therapies have been reported for prostate and pancreatic adenocarcinoma and melanoma. In order to explain this inconsistency, further research is needed for better understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumor vascularization and its interaction with cancer therapies in different tumor beds.

Tumors’ blood vessels are often larger and more conspicuous than those of normal tissues. However, tumors tend to actually have less blood supply than normal tissues because tumor blood vessels are fragile, leaky, morphologically abnormal and malfunctioning. While the normal vasculature consists of evenly spaced, well-differentiated arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins, the tumor vasculature is heterogeneous, unevenly distributed and chaotic with a tortious irregular course that leads to zones of hypoxia and acidosis. Tumors initiate a vascular supply through secreting angiogenic factors, mainly Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Despite being of critical value in controlling the physiological processes of angiogenesis and vascular permeability, when continuously over-expressed in tumor tissues, VEGF induces accelerated and defective angiogenesis wherein vessels are immature, leaky, tortious and characterized by defective anatomy and physiology. These structural abnormalities contribute to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in tumor blood function, resulting in poorly perfused and subsequently hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Targeting tumor vessels via. Anti-VEGF/VEGFR drugs have not been effective as a cure since impeding tumor blood supply deprives the tumor of oxygen, leading to hypoxia and acidosis that, in turn, can promote tumor growth, abnormal angiogenesis, and metastasis and also compromise the cytotoxic functions of immune cells that infiltrate tumors. In addition, reduced tumor vascularity is a main contributor to therapeutic resistance in cancer since it interferes with the delivery of anti-cancer agents to the tumor targeted by chemotherapy or minimizes the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the tumor area, which is essential for radiation therapy induced cell killing [18,19]. Radiation-induced effects on cancer are brought about by inducing ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis. However, poor vascularization and hypoxia that characterize solid tumors induce resistance to radiotherapy and are positively correlated with more invasion and metastasis. 

This is achieved by two mechanisms: first, through the lack of O2 and hence the interference with radiation-induced ROS production. Second, via. the hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) that provokes adaptive intracellular responses that, in turn, facilitate cell proliferation, interfere with apoptosis, provide protection from cell demise and ultimately rendering tumors radioresistant. As a result, increasing the chemotherapeutic doses or strategies to intensify radiotherapy have been employed to increase the treatment efficacy. However, these procedures can potentially lead to a higher risk of serious side effects. To raise the therapeutic ratio (the ratio between the desirable cytotoxic effects and normal tissue complications), new strategies to enhance chemo and radiosensitivity of cancer are needed. To this end, we need to develop methods to improve tumor blood perfusion and normalize vascular development in order to increase tumor vulnerability to anti-cancer therapy as a better alternative to starving a tumor of its blood supply, which is not curative. Furthermore, one needs to emphasize that antiangiogenic drugs are not without side effects. Indeed, they have been reported to induce a myriad of toxic effects such as hypertension, hemorrhage, thromboembolism, proteinuria, malaise, fatigue, biochemical hypothyroidism, and cardiac failure, all are related to the non-specific action of antiangiogenic drugs that affects both normal and cancer tissues.



Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Helicobacter pylori, A Sex Transmitted Bacteria

                    http://austinpublishinggroup.com/chronic-diseases/current-issue.php


Since oralsex is a very common sexual activity and recent evidence reported H. pylori exist in oral cavity as colonized site. Both facts indicated H. pylori may results sex transmitted disease such as vagina, breast and urethritis, However, further clinical studies and lab confirmation should be followed. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) passes through the mouth on its way to colonizing the stomach, where chronic infection is associated with ulcers, gastritis, and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori is the only proven oncogenic bacterial species and detecting, preventing, or curing infection in the early stages is essential if gastric disease is to be prevented. However, beside of stomach H. pylori infection, there are several reports indicated non-gut organs have been harbored of H. pylori, such as vagina, nasopharyngeal sinus cavities, coronary plaque, otitis media, breast. Now it is time we should answer a question; is H. pylori a sex transmitted bacteria?
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) passes through the mouth on its way to colonizing the stomach, where chronic infection is associated with ulcers, gastritis, and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori is the only proven oncogenic bacterial species and detecting, preventing, or curing infection in the early stages is essential if gastric disease is to be prevented. However, beside of stomach H. pylori infection, there are several reports indicated non-gut organs have been harbored of H. pylori, such as vagina, nasopharyngeal sinus cavities, coronary plaque, otitis media, breast. Now it is time we should answer a question; is H. pylori a sex transmitted bacteria?
Seroprevalence studies have shown that in sex partners with a man/woman who is infected with H. pylori the non-infected individual has an increased risk of transmitting the infection. Studies have shown that prevalence rates were statistically significant between couples with and without H. pylori infection (83.3% v 28.5%) respectively.

Ethnicity may also be an important predictor of sexual transmission of H. pylori infection. A number of studies have shown that the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections occur in ethnic minorities. The high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections correlates well with the high H. pylori prevalence rates that exist among these ethnic groups.

Sunday, 19 November 2017

Inverted Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Micro Extraction of Nicotinic Acid from Human Plasma and its Determination by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

http://austinpublishinggroup.com/chromatography/fulltext/chromatography-v3-id1038.php



Extractionand determination of nicotinic acid from human plasma was performed using inverted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC. The parameters affecting extraction recovery such as type and volume of extracting and disperser solvents, pH of sample solution, salt addition and extraction time were optimized. Optimal extraction conditions were: 150μL tributyl phosphate as extraction solvent, 400μL methanol as disperser solvent, and pH of sample = 4.5, concentration of NaCl = 3M, without effect of extraction time. Under the optimal conditions a linear range of 30-1000 ng mL-1 (R2 = 0.9994) was obtained. Limit of detection, the extraction recovery and preconcentration factor were 10 ng mL-1, 68% and 53 respectively. The method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of nicotinic acid in human plasma sample.

Nicotinic acid (niacin or pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, Figure 1) is a water soluble B-complex vitamin present in many foods including fish, milk and green vegetables. The deficiency of nicotinic acid results in pellagra, affecting the skin and central nervous system. High-dose of nicotinic acid may cause thickening of the retina and increase the level of uric acid in the blood. Thus, determination of nicotinic acid in human plasma is very important for health.

The analytical techniques, such as flow injection analysis, thinlayer chromatography , liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, capillary chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography were used for determination of nicotinic acid in human plasma. However, many of analytical techniques may need to preconcentrate target compounds before analysis. Preconcentration methods such as drop-to-drop solvent microextraction, solid phase extraction and Reactive Extraction are difficult and time consuming. Hence, simple and rapid preconcentration method is required to extract nicotinic acid from human plasma. Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (DLLME) is a mode of Liquid- Liquid Extraction (LLE) in smaller level, which in comparison with the LLE method, its consumption of organic extracting solvent and environmental contamination significantly lower, and the obtained preconcentration factor is much higher. DLLME employs a mixture of a high-density extracting solvent and water miscible polar disperser solvent. In DLLME After a rapid injection of an appropriate mixture containing extracting and disperser solvents into the aqueous sample a cloudy state is formed. The contact area between the extracting solvent and the sample solution is very large. Thus the extraction equilibrium is achieved rapidly. After centrifugation, the extracted phase is settled at the bottom of the conical test tube. In 2009, Farajzadeh et al. designed inverted dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (IDLLME). IDLLME is invert of DLLME because in IDLLME the extracting solvent is lighter than water; therefore the separated phase was collected at the top of the sample solution. Thus in the present work, IDLLME-HPLC is used for the extraction and determination of nicotinic acid in plasma sample. This method is based on the extraction of nicotinic acid from plasma sample into an organic solvent. Parameters affecting extraction recovery of nicotinic acid, such as selection types and volume of extracting and disperser solvents, pH of sample solution, salt addition and extraction time were optimized.


Nicotinic acid was purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany). HPLC grade (Methanol, acetonitrile, acetone), sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, and sodium chlorid were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). Xylene, n-hexan, toloen, dodecane, tributyl phosphate and 1-octanol were obtained from Aldrich (Milwaukee, WI, USA). Water used was double distilled deionized which purchased from Power Plant in sari city. Stock solution of nicotinic acid (1.0 mg/L) was prepared in methanol and stored in the dark at 4oC. Noted to the LC chromatogram this solution was stable for two months. Working standard solutions were diluted with deionizer double distilled water at concentration of 100.0 ngmL-1 when ever needed.





Friday, 17 November 2017

Textile Industry Wastewater Treatment Using DAP, Urea, and Polymer AQUATREAT @AR 06


                                            http://austinpublishinggroup.com/chemical-engineering/


TextileIndustry is one of the most important and largest industrial sectors in Pakistan. It has a high importance in terms of its environment impact, since it consumes large quantity of textile industrial processed water and produces highly polluted discharge water. The textile industry uses high volume of water throughout its operation, from the washing of fibers to bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing and washing of finished products. A process data collection was performed and integrated with a characterization of the process effluents in terms of treatability and reusability. In this research we use 98% Concentrated Sulfuric Acid for the Neutralization i.e. to maintain pH, Di Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) and Urea for the bacterial growth i.e. to decrease Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), and we use AQUATREAT @AR 06 for as an efficient coagulation and flocculation agent. The water treated and purified by using this method can be used for the agricultural purposes or can be drain to sewer without any hesitation.

The world’s water consumption rate is doubling every 20 years, outpacing by two times the rate of population growth. The availability of good quality water is on the decline and water demand is on the rise. Worldwide availability of fresh water for industrial needs and human consumption is limited. Various industrial and developmental activities in recent times have resulted in increasing the pollution level and deteriorating the water quality. Water shortages and unreliable water quality are considered major obstacles to achieve sustainable development and improvement in the quality of life. The water demand in the country is increasing fast due to progressive increase in the demand of water for irrigation, rapid industrialization, and population growth and improving life standards. The existing water resources are diminishing (i) due to unequal distribution of rain water and occasional drought, (ii) excessive exploitation of ground water sources and its insufficient recharge, (iii) deterioration of water quality due to the discharge of domestic and industrial effluents without adequate treatment. This is resulting into water stress/ scarcity. Country is currently passing through social and economic transition. The proportion of the population which is urban has doubled over the last thirty years (and is now about 30%), agriculture now accounts for about 25% of GDP and the economy has been growing at around 7-9% a year. Country has a highly seasonal pattern of rainfall, with 50% of precipitation falling in just 15 days and over 90% of river flows in just four months.
Textile Industry is one of the most important and largest industrial sectors in Pakistan. It has a high importance in terms of its environment impact, since it consumes large quantity of textile industrial processed water and produces highly polluted discharge water. The textile industry uses high volume of water throughout its operation, from the washing of fibers to bleaching, mercerizing dyeing, printing and washing of finished products .

Textile industry causes considerable higher impacts to water pollution by discharging their effluents into various receiving bodies includes ponds, rivers and other public sewer. Major pollutants load from the textile industries are from the several of their wet -processing operations like scouring, bleaching, mercerizing and dyeing. Among these various processes, dyeing process normally uses large amount of water for dyeing, fixing and washing processes. Thus, textile wastewater possess a high COD concentration, large amount of suspended solids, broadly fluctuating pH, strong color, high temperature and low biodegradability caused by varying contaminates within water environment. The textile industry is one of the most polluting industries in term of discharge volume and effluent composition. The dye effluent is characterized by strong color, high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) with pH varying from 2 to 12. The removals of color and COD reduction pose greatest problems in textile industry. Conventionally effluents containing organics are treated with adsorption, biological oxidation, coagulation, etc.